Types of Salts in Chemistry:
A substance which ionizes in water to produce cation other than H+ ions and anions other then OH– ions is called a salt. Salts are produced by the neutralization reaction.
Salts are a class of compounds produced by the partial or total replacement of the replaceable H-atoms of the acid by a metal or a group of elements behaving like a metal (NH4). There are mainly six types of salts in chemistry:
- Normal Salt
- Acid Salt
- Basic Salt
- Double Salt
- Complex Salt
- Mixed Salt
Normal salts are produced by the complete replacement of the H-atom present in the molecule of acid by metal ions or NH4 group. Therefore, it doesn’t contain any H-atom which can dissociate as H+ ion when the salt is dissolved in water.
An aqueous solution of normal salts may be neutral, acidic or alkaline depending upon the nature of the constituent acid and base. In case both acid and base are strong or weak, the salt solution is neutral. When the constituent acid is strong, the salt solution is acidic; when the constituent base is strong, the salt is alkaline.
Acid Salt or Bi-Salt:
Salts which are produced by partial replacement of the replaceable H-atoms present in a molecule of a Dibasic or polybasic acid by metallic ion or NH4 group that is called Acid Salt or Bi-Salt. These salts are generally acidic in their reactions due to the unreplaced H-atom of the parent acids.
If a di-acidic or poly-acidic base is partly neutralized by an acid, the salt formed is Basic Salt.
A compound of two salts whose solution gives tests for all the constituent ions is called a Double Salt.
A compound whose solution doesn’t give test for the constituent ions is called a Complex Salt. Complex Salt produces complex ions in solution.
Salts formed by the simultaneous neutralization of one acid by two bases or one base by two acids are called Mixed Salts. It contains more than one basic or acid radical.