Draw the Diagram of D/A Converter

The D/A converter converts digital or binary data into its equivalent analog value. The input digital data for a D/A converter is an n-bit binary word D. The bit b1 is called the most significant bit (MSB) and bit bn is the least significant bit (LSB). Then, the quantity D can be represented by
D = b12-1 + b22-2 + b32-3 +…+ bn2-n

The D/A converter accepts the binary input D and produces an analog output, which is proportional to D using a reference voltage VR. The converted analog value is either in voltage or current for. For a voltage output D/A converter, the conversion characteristics may be expressed as:
Vo = KVFS = KVFS(b12-1 + b22-2 + b32-3 +…+ bn2-n)
Vo = output voltage
VFS = full-scale range of voltage
K = scaling factor, usually unity
b1…bn = n-bit binary fractional word with binary point located at the left.
b1 = most significant bit (MSB) of weight VFS/2
bn = least significant bit (LSB) of weight VFS/2n