## Simple Pendulum:

A simple pendulum, in its simplest form, consists of heavy bob suspended at the end of a light in-extensible and flexible string. The other end of the string is fixed at O, as shown in fig:

Let, L = Length of the string

m = Mass of the bob in kg.

W = Weight of the bob in newtons = m.g

θ = Angle through which the string is displaced

When the bob is at A, the pendulum is in equilibrium position. If the bob is brought to B or C and released, it’ll start oscillating between the two position B and C, with A as the mean position. It has been observed that if the angle θ is very small. Now, the couple tending to restore the bob to the equilibrium position or restoring torque.

T = m.g sinθ x L

Since angle θ is very small, therefore sinθ = θ radians.

We know that the mass moment of inertia of the body about an axis through the point of suspension.

I = mass x (length)^{2} = mL^{2}

∴ Angular Acceleration of the string,

α = T/I = m.g.L.θ/m.L^{2} = g.θ/L

or, θ/α = L/g

Angular displacement/Angular Acceleration = L/g

We know that the periodic time,

t_{p} = 2π√(Displacement/Acceleration) = 2π√(L/g)

Frequency of Oscillation,

n = 1/t_{p} = 1/2π√(g/L)

__Laws of Simple Pendulum:__

**1. Law of Isochronism:** It states “The time period (t_{p}) of a simple pendulum does not depend upon its amplitude of vibration and remains the same. It provides the angular amplitude (θ) doesn’t exceed 4°”.

**2. Law of Mass:** It states “The time period (t_{p}) of a simple pendulum doesn’t depend the mass of the body suspended at the free end of the string”.

**3. Law of Length:** It states “The time period (t_{p}) of a simple pendulum is directly proportional to √L, where L is the length of the string”.

**4. Law of Gravity:** It states “The time period (t_{p}) of a simple pendulum is inversely proportional to to √g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity”.