Sources of Electrical Energy:
The different sources of energy which is most suitable for the creation of electrical energy can be classified into two categories:
- Conventional sources of energy
- Non-conventional sources of energy
Conventional Sources of Energy:
The different conventional sources of energy are as follows:
i. Water at a particular height
ii. Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal (lignite or Bituminous or Anthracite coal).
iii. Nuclear energy material (Uranium-235) or Thorium with the help of modern engineering knowledge electrical power can be produced most economically with the above-mentioned sources of energy.
Non-conventional Sources of Energy:
The different Non-conventional sources of energy are as follows:
i. Solar Energy: Solar energy is the common non-conventional source of electrical energy in India. It utilized a lot amount, though there are some draws back indifferent factors such as higher cost, low efficiency, etc. In solar power plants, solar heat is utilized for the generation of electrical power. These sources of energy have already been used in Rajasthan, Gujrat, Bangalore, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal for rural electrification on a small scale.
ii. Wind Energy: Wind Energy is the common non-conventional source of electrical energy in India. In wind power stations, the generation of electrical energy has economic feasibility for properly utilizing wind power. In the seashore areas where the velocity of wind flow is about 30-40 km/hour is required for the generation of electrical power. In our country, there are few wind power stations in Tamil Nadu (Kaya Thor Project) and Gujrat (Mandvi). Besides, there is a very low power generation in Odisha at Puri.
iii. Ocean Tide: We get some electrical power from ocean tide energy at the gulf of kutch in Gujrat.
iv. Geothermal Energy: In the geothermal power plant, pulverized coal is fired in the combustion chamber of the boiler which will convert boiler feed water to steam. This steam will impose on the runner of the steam turbine and produce shaft energy. This shaft energy of the turbine produces electrical power in the alternator.
v. Hydrodynamic Energy: hydroelectric power is obtained either from the natural flow of a river or from water stored in the water reservoir. this power station utilizes the potential energy of water at a high level for the generation of electrical power.
vi. Biogas Energy: The biogas plant is restricted to use in a rural areas only and the amount of power generation is a very small quantity. Biogas plants exist in rural areas in different states of India, mainly in Hariyana, Punjab, M.P, and West Bengal Half kg. of solid waste produces 1 kWh of electrical energy.
vii. Nuclear Energy: In a nuclear power station, fissile materials such uranium-235 or uranium-238 or Thorium and Plutonium are subjected to atomic fission in an atomic reactor. Large heat is produced which will convert water into steam at high temp and pressure and thus from the turbine to an alternator producing electrical energy.