Characteristics of Progressive Waves

1. Progressive wave continuously propagates through a medium and if not damped, it can propagate to infinity.

2. Progressive wave moves with a definite velocity. The wave velocity depends on the elastic properties and on the density of the medium. Energy is transferred with the wave through the medium with the velocity of the wave.

3. Each particle of the medium vibrates about its mean position with identical frequency and amplitude. The direction of movement of the particles may be perpendicular or parallel with respect to the direction of wave motion.

4. The velocity with which the phase of a vibrating particle of the medium is transferred to the next particle is called the wave velocity.

5. Progressive wave carries energy from one point to another without displacing the particles of the medium. Energy is transferred perpendicular to the direction of the wavefronts, along the direction of the rays.

6. Pressure and density in the medium, through which the progressive wave advances, follow the sinusoidal form of variation like that of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

7. A progressive wave has double periodicity. One is time periodicity determined by the time period (T) of the wave and the other is space periodicity determined by the wavelength (λ).